Adenoma: How to Prevent Cancer Development

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The formation of lumps or polyps always alarms people because there is a possibility for these to develop into cancer. Adenoma is one condition that should not be taken lightly even if the mass is found to be benign. Some cases will eventually develop into a cancerous tumor if left untreated. Early diagnosis, just like several other diseases, will lead to a good prognosis. Patients should also identify the problem using the right techniques and tests to rule out the possibility of other problems. Here is an overview on adenoma and the effects.

What is Adenoma?

An adenoma is a benign or non-cancerous tumor that develops particularly on the glands. These can be present in any gland in the human body such as the lungs, colon, throat, colon and other internal organs. Although most of these remain in the same state for several years, there are a few cases wherein the tumor develops into a cancerous one, thereby leading to different complications and life-threatening effects. The glands that trigger the development of adenoma usually function in the production or secretion of useful fluids in the body. The glands or epithelial cells will product different useful fluids like hormones, sweat, breast milk and saliva. When the cells start replicating at a very fast pace, a lump will usually develop.

If the formation is non-cancerous, it is described as an adenoma. Polyps are formations on various internal parts and organs such as the colon. Even if the formation is not cancerous in nature, doctors still recommend that patients have these remove to avoid the occurrence or development of cancerous tumors. The size of the formation will also determine the risk of developing a more serious condition. Bigger formations are more prone to turn cancerous after several years.

The Kinds of Adenoma

There are three basic kinds of adenoma namely tubular, villous and tubulovillous. Tubular type is the most frequently occurring and called such because of the structures that resemble tubes. The villous type is the least common among the three and is characterized by ruffles in the structure. The tubulovillous type is a combination of the two types and is the second most common. The type will differ among individuals. It is also possible for one person to develop two or more kinds at different parts of the body. The true cause of the formation is not known.

Doctors speculate that genetic factors and hormones contribute to the development although the route is vague. Some individuals who have been taking medications or drugs for a long time seem to be at risk for the development too. The tumor on the glands can happen to anyone regardless of sex, race and age. However, women are particularly prone to having tumors in their livers while older adults in general are more prone to growths in the colon.

Signs and Symptoms of Adenoma

People with adenoma will generally show a lump on the affected area. If the polyp or tumor is located on an internal organ, the person might not notice anything unless he undergoes diagnostic procedures or feels the lump sometime later if it grows to considerable size. The lump will vary in size among patients. Some are found visibly on the surface while others might be located deep in the tissue or muscle. The effects of the condition will differ depending on the location and the affected area.

If the tumor is found on the thyroid gland, the gland will most likely secrete more hormones leading to thyroid problems. The person might lose or gain weight as an effect. If the mass is found on the kidneys, the person might experience changes associated with the area too. Some of the common symptoms of the condition include body weakness, pain and aches, colds, fever, fatigue, cough, muscle cramps and dizziness.

Diagnosing Adenoma

Physicians will perform a number of tests and diagnostic examinations that will rule out the presence of the anomalies and properly identify the presence of adenoma. If the tumor is found on the external part of the body, it will be easier to get a tissue sample to determine if it is benign or malignant. Masses on internal organs can be detected via a number of approaches like MRI scan, x-ray and other body image scanning techniques. A colonoscopy will effectively point out colon adenoma. There are also other scoping devices that will be useful for viewing tumor developments inside the body. The glands will also be assessed to determine proper function. The presence of other diseases might also be discovered as the patient undergoes a thorough physical assessment.

Benign and Malignant Adenoma

There is a difference between an adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Both conditions will feature an abnormal growth of cells. The normal adenoma will not move to other parts of the body or affect nearby tissues because it is benign or non-cancerous in nature. However, adenocarcinoma is considered as a more serious condition because the epithelial cells will start to spread to other tissues and organs in the body. If the adenocarcinoma persists, the person can develop certain cancers like colon cancer, lung cancer, etc. The condition can go undetected for a long time because symptoms do not present quickly.

Treating Adenoma

The most common treatment for adenoma would be surgery. Doctors can remove the overgrowth of cells through simple operation. The patient does not need to be confined in the hospital if the mass is located externally. However, if the overgrowth is located inside the body or on a gland responsible for secreting hormones and other important fluids, the person may be given medications first that will stop the spread and remove the mass effectively.

Many patients with benign adenoma will recover fully and won’t present further symptoms or complications after medication or surgery. However, those with the cancerous type should be monitored carefully. The mass can sometimes reappear in both cases. Patients must also be given symptomatic treatment for other related effects that may arise with the conditions. Consider the response of the patient to treatment and report side effects to the doctor.